Left side menu bar


   Project Coordinator
   Prof. Theo Zouros
   Atomic & Molecular Physics
   Dept. of Physics
   Univ. of Crete, PO Box 2208,
  . GR-71003 Heraklion
   e-mail: tzouros@physics.uoc.gr

free hit counters

Home > Work Packages > WP8- Electron spectrometers - preparation, setup and operation
Work Packages

Work Packages: WP1  WP2  WP3  WP4  WP5  WP6  WP7  WP8  WP9  WP10  WP11  WP12 Timetable

Work Package 8: Measurements of electron spectra using ions from the TANDEM

Figure 1: One of the first measurements using 12 MeV C4+ + Ne(20mTorr) taken in July 28, 2014 with the new data acquisition system. W=1525 eV F=4. The big spot on the PSD is the 1s2s2p 4P line of C3+ while the next two lines the 1s2s2p 2P- and 1s2s2p 2P+. Slight misalignment of peaks along the x-direction caused by insufficient mu-metal shielding between gas cell and spectrometer. The individual projections along the x-direction (energy dispersion axis) and the y-direction (focusing axis) are seen on the right together with the signal from the sum of all 4 signals.

Figure 2: Same as for Fig. 1, but with additional mu-metal shielding installed between gas cell and collision chamber. All peaks are now seen to be aligned.

Description of work package

Work Package



Month 19


Month 48



WP8: Measurements of electron spectra using ions from the TANDEM


Research Teams:

RT1, RT2, RT3, RT4

For the specific isoelectronic sequence measurements proposed here we shall follow the procedures presented in Strohschein et al [Stro08a] used for the measured C4+ spectra shown in Figs. 1 and 2. The same procedures will be repeated for every single different ion species used until we cover all the ions with atomic number between Lithium and Fluorine.  These are described below:

8.1 Start up of negative ion source - tuning the beam at the required energy for optimal transmission:

This is the first part of every beam time and includes the startup of the ion source, tuning the selected ion species through the accelerator with the required energy, selecting the right charge state at the analyzing magnet, post stripping if necessary prior to switching the beam to the right beam line by setting the switching magnet. Depending on whether beam in the ground state or mixed state is required, the tank gas stripper or the post-stripper is activated. The selected beam is eventually tuned through the target gas cell and the 00 spectrometer and optimized in the final Faraday cup. Electron spectra are then accumulated and final beam tuning to minimize background from slits etc. is performed.

8.2 Absolute energy calibration of electron spectra

Before projectile electron spectra can be taken an overall electron energy calibration of the entire apparatus is required usually performed with known target Auger lines as for example obtained in 3 MeV p + Ne/Ar [Zou97a]. Also required is the accurate knowledge of the beam velocity which is usually obtained by measuring the energy of the “cusp” electrons which are known to move at the projectile speed. Finally, once this is known, projectile electron spectra can be safely accumulated since the Auger energies in the lab frame are now well specified and particular states/lines can be accurately identified.

8.3. Absolute calibration of electron double differential cross sections (DDCS)

This is an important calibration of the counts scale of an electron spectrum related to the electron DDCS and the overall absolute efficiency of the apparatus. It is typically performed by a procedure well established by Zouros and his collaborators in Kansas. It involves a measurement of the so called Binary Encounter peak electrons using bare ions which correspond to elastically scattered electrons for which the absolute DDCS are very well established from theory. This calibration is usually performed with a strong completely stripped ion beam typically F9+, O8+ or B5+ around 1 MeV/u [Zou97a].

8.4. Measurements of electron spectra and conversion to DDCS

Once the precise energy range of the spectrum to be recorded as well as the target gas pressure are specified after a few standard tests requiring short runs of spectra accumulation, the final high resolution spectra (under electron pre-deceleration)  are accumulated consisting of (a) A spectrum with loaded gas cell, (b) A spectrum with no gas (background spectrum). The subtraction of (b) from (a) will give the necessary “clean” or background subtracted spectrum.

This procedure is repeated for all required spectra for both types of He-like beams, i.e. the “pure” ground state beams taken using the terminal gas stripper and the mixed 1s2/1s2s 3S beams taken using a foil post-stripper. Such spectra will be taken for both H2 and He targets and possibly for other gas targets such as CH4, Ne or Ar, having more than 2 electrons to be captured, as an extra test. Total high statistics accumulation time for each spectrum can vary between 1 and 4 hours depending on beam intensity.

8.5. Servicing of experimental components after use

The electron spectrometers with their detectors are normally kept in the collision chamber under vacuum even when not used for measurements since this preserves them in a clean environment and extends the life time of the MCP plates and channeltron detectors. However, after some use the MCPs eventually deteriorate and need to be replaced about once a year, depending on use. Similarly, for channeltrons, which however being more rugged, need replacement only once every 2 years. Spectrometers also sometimes, especially if a vacuum accident occurs, need meticulous cleaning and even high voltage conditioning. Graphite coating must also be refreshed every so often, especially if the spectrometer needs to be taken apart for cleaning which is a major operation. Both Prof. Benis and Zouros have done this procedure many times.

8.6. Back-up of all data on special storage media

In a typical run many different spectra are collected. Especially the two-dimensional images of the 2-D PSD require a lot more disk space on the PC. The data of each run will be backed up onto a special hard disk, labeled and logged so it can be readily accessed for future offline data analysis.


2 Reports, part of BS, MS or PhD thesis

WP8: Table of Activities to the end of THALES grant (31/12/2015)

CompletedActivityTarget Date
1rst beam time - 2 MeV p - search for Ne KLL Auger - general tests
Apr 2014
2nd beam time - 2 MeV p - seach for Ne KLL Auger - more tests
May 2014
3rd beam time - 12 MeV C4+ - tests with projectile Auger - first projectile Auger spectrum
Jul 2014

4rth beam time:

- 3 MeV p - attempt at Ne KLL target Auger energy calibration

- 12 MeV C4+ - more tests with projectile Auger - more μ-metal shielding added

Sep 2014

Accelerator down time for maintenance, trouble shooting and testing terminal gas stripper

Oct 2014

5th beam time:

5-7/11: 3 MeV p - attempt at Ne KLL target Auger energy calibration

Nov 2014

6th beam time:

17-19/12: 3 MeV p - attempt at Ne KLL target Auger energy calibration - found absolute efficiency of MCP around 35%

Dec 2014

7th beam time:

12-17/1: 12 MeV C4+ - more tests with projectile Auger

Jan 2015

8th beam time:

31/1-4/2: 12 MeV C4+ - more tests with projectile Auger, 4P and biased gas cell

5/2: 18 MeV C4+ - more tests with projectile Auger, 4P and biased gas cell

Feb 2015

Installation of gas and foil POST-stripper

May 7-8 2015

Installation of gas terminal stripper with recirculating gas turbo - leak discovered - installation only partly successfull

Jun 2-10 2015

9th beam time: 9, 12, 18 MeV C4+ - measurements with projectile Auger, 4P, ground state and mixed state beams using post strippers for the first time

Nov 2015
Final Report on electron measurements at the TANDEM ready - work package completed
Dec 2015

WP8: Table of Activities after the end of THALES grant (1/1/2016 - )

Fixed freezing of DAQ after repair of normalization DAC by ATOMKI - from here on spectra can be considered to be properly normalized to the ion beam current

14/1/ 2016

WP8: Deliverables

WP8: People involved

  • Prof. Theo Zouros - MRG RT1 (UoC)
  • Giannis Madesis (PhD student) - GEC RT1 (UoC)
  • Dr. Tasos Dimitriou (postdoc) - GEC RT1 (UoC)
  • Prof. Manolis Benis - MRG RT3 (UoI)
  • Dr. Bela Sulik - MRG RT1 (invited scientist - ATOMKI, Debrecen Hungary)
  • Aggelos Laoutaris (MS student) - GEC RT1 (UoC)
  • Fasmatech
  • Prof. Omer Sise, Dept. of Science Education, Faculty of Education, Suleyman Demirel University, 32260 Isparta, Turkey - GEC RT1 (UoC)

WP8: Technical Notes

Last Update: 22/02/17 13:36:07

Contact Information